Markets in financial instruments directive 2

Markets in financial instruments directive 2

MiFID applied in the UK from November 7557, and was revised by MiFID II, which took effect in January 7568, to improve the functioning of financial markets in light of the financial crisis and to strengthen investor protection.  MiFID II extended the MiFID requirements in a number of areas including:

What is a financial instrument? Definition and examples

International Accounting Standards (IAS) defines financial instruments as 89 any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity. 89

Financial Markets and Instruments - IMF

Cash instruments are instruments that the markets value directly. Securities, which are readily transferable, for example, are cash instruments. Deposits and loans, where both lender and borrower must agree on a transfer, are also cash instruments.


Securities under equity-based financial instruments are stocks. Exchange-traded derivatives in this category include stock options and equity futures. The OTC derivatives are stock options and exotic derivatives.

Financial Instrument Definition - Investopedia

Treasury bills (T-bills) are short-term notes issued by the . government. They come in three different lengths to maturity: 95, 685, and 865 days. The two shorter types are auctioned on a weekly basis, while the annual types are auctioned monthly. T-bills can be purchased directly through the auctions or indirectly through the secondary market. Purchasers of T-bills at auction can enter a competitive bid (although this method entails a risk that the bills may not be made available at the bid price) or a noncompetitive bid. T-bills for noncompetitive bids are supplied at the average price of all successful competitive bids.

The money market is a good place for individuals, banks, other companies, and governments to park cash for a short period of time, usually one year or less. It exists so that businesses and governments that need cash to operate can get it quickly at a reasonable cost, and so that businesses that have more cash than they need can put it to use.

Some agencies of the federal government issue both short-term and long-term obligations, including the loan agencies Fannie Mae and Sallie Mae. These obligations are not generally backed by the government, so they offer a slightly higher yield than T-bills, but the risk of default is still very small. Agency securities are actively traded, but are not quite as marketable as T-bills. Corporations are major purchasers of this type of money market instrument.

As an EU regulation, MiFIR is binding in its entirety and directly applicable, its content becomes law in the UK without the need for domestic legislative intervention. 

There are no securities under foreign exchange. Cash equivalents come in spot foreign exchange. Exchange-traded derivatives under foreign exchange are currency futures. OTC derivatives come in foreign exchange options, outright forwards, and foreign exchange swaps.

Short-term debt-based financial instruments last for one year or less. Securities of this kind come in the form of T-bills and commercial paper. Cash of this kind can be deposits and certificates of deposit (CDs).

Long-term debt-based financial instruments last for more than a year. Under securities, these are bonds. Cash equivalents are loans. Exchange-traded derivatives are bond futures and options on bond futures. OTC derivatives are interest rate swaps, interest rate caps and floors, interest rate options, and exotic derivatives.

The Markets in Financial Instruments Directive is the EU legislation that regulates firms who provide services to clients linked to ‘financial instruments’ (shares, bonds, units in collective investment schemes and derivatives), and the venues where those instruments are traded.

Mid-level to senior officials in central banks, ministries of finance, and financial regulatory agencies who are interested in more advanced finance topics than those covered in the Financial Markets Analysis course.

The short-term debts and securities sold on the money markets which are known as money market instruments have maturities ranging from one day to one year and are extremely liquid. Treasury bills, federal agency notes, certificates of deposit (CDs), eurodollar deposits, commercial paper, bankers' acceptances, and repurchase agreements are examples of instruments. The suppliers of funds for money market instruments are institutions and individuals with a preference for the highest liquidity and the lowest risk.

The capital market is where stocks and bonds are traded. Its movements from hour to hour are constantly monitored and analyzed for clues to the health of the economy at large, the status of every industry in it, and the consensus for the short-term future.

When a company or government issues short-term debt, it s usually to cover routine operating expenses or supply working capital, not for capital improvements or large-scale projects. 

When you enroll in the course, you get access to all of the courses in the Specialization, and you earn a certificate when you complete the work. Your electronic Certificate will be added to your Accomplishments page - from there, you can print your Certificate or add it to your LinkedIn profile. If you only want to read and view the course content, you can audit the course for free.

The instruments used in the money markets include deposits , collateral loans, acceptances, and bills of exchange. Institutions operating in the money markets include the Federal Reserve, commercial banks, and acceptance houses.

The money market plays a key role in ensuring that banks, other companies, and governments maintain the appropriate level of liquidity on a daily basis, without falling short and needing a more expensive loan and without hoarding excess cash that isn t earning interest.

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